Restricted Pesticides

Restricted Pesticides

Red - Danger Poison/ഉഗ്ര വിഷം, Yellow - Poison/വിഷം, Blue - Danger/അപായം, Green - Caution/ജാഗ്രത
Endosulfan - എൻഡോസൾഫാൻ

കീടനാശിനിയായി ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന ഒരു ഓർഗാനോക്ലോറിൻ സം‌യുക്തമാണ്‌ എൻഡോസൾഫാൻ. നിറമില്ലാത്ത ഈ ഖരവസ്തു ഒരു മാരകവിഷവസ്തു എന്ന നിലയിൽ മനുഷ്യരടക്കമുള്ള ജീവജാലങ്ങളിൽ ജനിതകവൈകല്യങ്ങളും ഹോർമോൺ തകരാറുകളും ഉൾപ്പെടെയുള്ള ദോഷഫലങ്ങൾ സൃഷ്ടിക്കുന്നതായി കണ്ടെത്തിയിട്ടുള്ളതിനാൽ കാർഷിക രംഗത്തെ ഇതിന്റെ ഉപയോഗം വൻ‌വിവാദങ്ങൾ ഉയർത്തിവിട്ടിട്ടുണ്ട്. 2011 ഏപ്രിൽ 29 ന് സ്റ്റോക്‌ഹോം കൺവെൻഷന്റെ ഭാഗമായി സ്വിറ്റ്സർലണ്ടിലെ ജനീവയിൽ നടന്ന സമ്മേളനത്തിൽ എൻഡോസൾഫാൻ ലോകവ്യാപകമായി നിരോധിക്കാൻ ഇന്ത്യയും മറ്റു ചില രാജ്യങ്ങളും ഉന്നയിച്ച ഉപാധികളോടെ തീരുമാനമായി.2011 മെയ് 13നാണ് രാജ്യത്ത് എൻഡോസൾഫാൻ ഉൽപാദനവും വിൽപ്പനയും സുപ്രീംകോടതി നിരോധനം പ്രഖ്യാപിച്ചിരുന്നെങ്കിലും 2011 സെപ്തംബർ 30 ന് പൂർണ്ണ നിരോധനം ഏർപ്പെടുത്തി.

Carbofuran - കാര്ബോഫ്യുറാൻ

Carbofuran is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. It is marketed under the trade names Furadan, by FMC Corporation and Curater, among several others. It is used to control insects in a wide variety of field crops, including potatoes, corn and soybeans. It is a systemic insecticide, which means that the plant absorbs it through the roots, and from here the plant distributes it throughout its organs where insecticidal concentrations are attained. Carbofuran also has contact activity against pests.

Azadirachtin - അസാഡിറാക്ടിൻ

Azadirachtin, a chemical compound belonging to the limonoid group, is a secondary metabolite present in neem seeds. It is a highly oxidized tetranortriterpenoid which boasts a plethora of oxygen bearing functional groups, including an enol ether, acetal, hemiacetal, tetra-substituted epoxide and a variety of carboxylic esters.

Phorate - ഫോറേറ്റ്

Phorate is an organophosphate used as an insecticide and acaricide.At normal conditions, it is a pale yellow mobile liquid poorly soluble in water but readily soluble in organic solvents. It is relatively stable and hydrolyses only at very acidic or basic conditions. It is very toxic both for target organisms and for mammals including human. It inhibits acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase.Phorate is most commonly applied in granular form. It is non-biocumulative and has no residual action. But some metabolites may persist in soil. It also damages some seeds.Phorate is absorbed readily through all ways. Its toxicity is high. Oral LD50 to rats is 1.1 – 3.2 mg/kg, to mice 3.5 – 6.5 mg/kg (technical phorate). Similar values has been found out to birds.

Parathion - പാരതയോൺ

As a pesticide, parathion is generally applied by spraying. It is often applied to cotton, rice and fruit trees. The usual concentrations of ready-to-use solutions are 0.05 to 0.1%. The chemical is banned for use on many food crops.Parathion is a cholinesterase inhibitor. It generally disrupts the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. It is absorbed via skin, mucous membranes, and orally. Absorbed parathion is rapidly metabolized to paraoxon, as described in Insecticidal activity. Paraoxon exposure can result in headaches, convulsions, poor vision, vomiting, abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, unconsciousness, tremor, dyspnea, and finally lung-edema as well as respiratory arrest. Symptoms of poisoning are known to last for extended periods, sometimes months.

Monocrotophos - മോണോക്രോട്ടോഫോസ്

ഇന്ത്യയില്‍ സുലഭമായി ലഭിക്കുന്ന മോണോക്രോട്ടോഫോസ് എന്ന രാസപദാര്‍ത്ഥം 46 രാജ്യങ്ങള്‍ നിരോധിച്ചതാണ്. ഇതിന്റെ ഒരു ഡോസ് മതി ധാന്യങ്ങള്‍ വിഷയമയമാക്കാന്‍. എന്നാല്‍ മഹാരാഷ്ട്രയിലെ പാടങ്ങളില്‍ വ്യാപകമായി ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന കീടനാശിനിയാണ് മോണോക്രോട്ടോഫോസ്. പച്ചക്കറികളെയും പഴങ്ങളേയും ആക്രമിക്കുന്ന കീടങ്ങളെ പ്രതിരോധിക്കാനാണ് ഈ കീടനാശിനി വ്യാപകമായി ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത്. 2009 ല്‍ തന്നെ യു.എന്‍ ഇന്ത്യയില്‍ മോണോക്രോട്ടോഫോസിന്റെ ഉപയോഗം നിര്‍ത്തലാക്കാന്‍ ആവശ്യപ്പെട്ടിരുന്നു.

Methyl Demeton - മീതൈൽ ഡിമറ്റോൺ

Demeton-S-methyl is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H15O3PS2. It is used as an acaricide and insecticide; more specifically it is an organothiophosphate acaricide and an aliphatic organothiophosphate insecticide, respectively. It is flammable.emeton-s-methyl inhibits acetyl-cholinesterase, an enzyme critical to the normal function of the nervous system. Symptoms of toxicity are similar to those caused by other organophosphate insecticides including headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, and dizziness. In addition, symptoms in some cases of poisoning include tremors, lack of coordination, and hiccough. With time, anorexia and loss of the ability to concentrate may occur (1, 5). Demeton-s-methyl is non-irritating to the skin and eyes

Triazophos - ട്രയാസോഫോസ്

Triazophos is an organophosphorus-based active ingredient which exhibits an acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect, which has led to its use as an insecticide , sold under the name Hostathion by Bayer .Triazophos is classified as extremely toxic and probably carcinogenic, it is a cholinesterase inhibitor 3 The acceptable daily intake for humans is estimated to be 0.0002 mg / day / kg 4 . To 0.01 mg / day / kg 5 . A study carried out by the Directorate General of Food in the years 1998-1999 showed that the average population exposure rate in France is 0.024 mg / day / person.Symptoms of Poisoning with Organophosphorus Compounds Find Products Containing this Chemical Excessive salivation, sweating, rhinorrhea and tearing.Muscle twitching, weakness, tremor, incoordination. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea.

Methoxyethyl mercuric chloride -മിതോക്സ് ഈതൈൽ മെർക്യൂറിക് ക്ലോറൈഡ്

Metallic taste in mouth, numbness and tingling of the digits and face, tremor, headache, fatigue, emotional lability, and difficulty thinking. More severe poisoning causes incoordination, slurred speech, loss of position sense, hearing loss, constriction of visual capacity. Many mercury poisonings result in death or severe permanent neurological damage. Phenyl mercury compounds are not absorbed as well as alkyl mercury compounds and are thus somewhat less toxic.

Bendiocarb - ബെന്ദിയോകാർബ്‌

Bendiocarb is an acutely toxic carbamate insecticide used in public health and agriculture and is effective against a wide range of nuisance and disease vector insects. Many bendiocarb products are or were sold under the tradenames "Ficam" and "Turcam." All bendiocarb-containing products in the United States were recently cancelled, after its manufacturers voluntarily chose to pull their products off the market, rather than conduct additional safety studies required by the EPA. In other countries, it is still used in homes, industrial plants, and food storage sites to control bedbugs, mosquitoes, flies, wasps, ants, fleas, cockroaches, silverfish, and ticks but can be used against a wide variety of insects as well as snails and slugs. It is one of 12 insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization for use in malaria control.

Aldicarb - ആൽഡികാർബ്‌

Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide which is the active substance in the pesticide Temik. It is effective against thrips, aphids, spider mites, lygus, fleahoppers, and leafminers, but is primarily used as a nematicide. Aldicarb is a cholinesterase inhibitor which prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine in the synapse. In case of severe poisoning, the victim dies of respiratory failure. Aldicarb is one of the most widely used pesticides internationally, and is also one of the most environmentally toxic. Aldicarb poisoning from agricultural water runoff has led to the destruction of healthy ecosystems and the irreversible poisoning of fertile agricultural land. Poisoning from this pesticide is also believed to be linked to high cancer rates in communities located around the Aral Sea.

Fenoxycarb - ഫെനോക്സികാർബ്‌

Fenoxycarb is a carbamate insect growth regulator. It has a low toxicity for bees, birds, and humans, but is toxic to fish. The oral LD50 for rats is greater than 16,800 mg/kg. Fenoxycarb is non-neurotoxic and does not have the same mode of action as other carbamate insecticides. Instead, it prevents immature insects from reaching maturity by mimicking juvenile hormone.

Isoprocarb - ഐസോപ്രൊകാർബ്‌

Different species of livestock was exposed to isoprocarb (MIPC 50 WP) sprays to monitor their health status. Exposure of livestock (calves, sheep, dogs and RIR birds) to 0.1 percent isoprocarb sprays on cotton crop for 6 hours a day for three consecutive days, showed no adverse effects on evident from clinical hematological and biochemical observations. Symptoms of Poisoning with moderate toxicity Carbamate Compounds - Malaise, muscle weakness, dizziness, and sweating. - Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. - Central nervous system depression and pulmonary edema

Methomyl - മെതോമയിൽ

Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide introduced in 1966. It is highly toxic to humans, livestock, pets, and wildlife.[3] The EU and UK imposed a pesticide residue limit of 0.02 mg/kg for apples and oranges.[citation needed]. Methomyl is a common active ingredient in commercial fly bait, for which the label instructions warn that "It is a violation of Federal Law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling." "Off-label" uses and other uses not specifically targeted at problem insects are illegal, dangerous, and ill-advised. In acute toxicity testing, methomyl is placed in EPA Toxicity Category I (the highest toxicity category out of four) via the oral route and in eye irritation studies. It is in lower Toxicity Categories for inhalation (Category II), acute dermal effects (Category III), and acute skin irritation (Category IV). Methomyl is not likely to be a carcinogen (EPA carcinogen Category E)

Aldrin - ആൽഡ്രിൻ

Aldrin is an organochlorine insecticide that was widely used until the 1970s, when it was banned in most countries. It is a colourless solid. Before the ban, it was heavily used as a pesticide to treat seed and soil. Aldrin and related "cyclodiene" pesticides (a term for pesticides derived from Hexachlorocyclopentadiene) became notorious as persistent organic pollutants.Like related polychlorinated pesticides, aldrin is highly lipophilic. Its solubility in water is only 0.027 mg/L, which exacerbates its persistence in the environment. It was banned by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. In the U.S., aldrin was cancelled in 1974. The substance is banned from use for plant protection by the EU.Causes to these Symptoms headache, dizziness; nausea, vomiting, malaise (vague feeling of discomfort); myoclonic jerks of limbs; clonic, tonic convulsions; coma; hematuria (blood in the urine), azotemia; [potential occupational carcinogen]

Endrin - എൻഡ്രിൻ

Endrin is an organochloride with the chemical formula C12H8Cl6O that was first produced in 1950 by Shell and Velsicol Chemical Corporation. It was primarily used as an insecticide, as well as a rodenticide and piscicide. It is a colourless, odorless solid, although commercial samples are often off-white. Endrin was manufactured as an emulsifiable solution known commercially as Endrex.The compound became infamous as a persistent organic pollutant and for this reason it is banned in many countries. In the environment endrin exists as either endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone and can be found mainly in bottom sediments of bodies of water. Exposure to endrin can occur by inhalation, ingestion of substances containing the compound, or skin contact. Upon entering the body, it can be stored in body fats and can act as a neurotoxin on the central nervous system, which can cause convulsions, seizures, or even death. Exposure to endrin can occur by inhalation, ingestion of substances containing the compound, or by skin contact. In addition to inhalation and skin contact, infants can be exposed by ingesting the breast milk of an exposed woman. In utero, fetuses are exposed by way of the placenta if the mother has been exposed.

Heptachlor - ഹെപ്റ്റാക്ലോർ

Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide. Usually sold as a white or tan powder, heptachlor is one of the cyclodiene insecticides. In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring questioned the safety of heptachlor and other chlorinated insecticides. Due to its highly stable structure, heptachlor can persist in the environment for decades. The US EPA has limited the sale of heptachlor products to the specific application of fire ant control in underground transformers. The amount that can be present in different foods is regulated. Heptachlor is persistent organic pollutant (POP). It has a half life of ~1.3-4.2 days (air),~0.03-0.11 years (water),~0.11-0.34 years (soil). One study described its half life to be 2 years and claimed that its residues could be found in soil 14 years after its initial application. Like other POPs, heptachlor is lipophilic and poorly soluble in water (0.056 mg/L at 25 °C), thus it tends to accumulate in the body fat of humans and animals.

Nitrofen - നൈട്രോഫേൺ

Nitrofen is an herbicide of the diphenyl ether class. Because of concerns about its carcinogenicity, the use of nitrofen has been banned in the European Union and in the United States since 1996. In 2002 Nitrofen was detected in organic feed, organic eggs, and organic poultry products in Germany prompting a scandal which caused a decline in all organic meat sales in Europe to slip

Toxaphene - ടോക്‌സഫെൺ

Toxaphene was an insecticide used primarily for cotton in the southern United States during the late 1960s and 1970s. Toxaphene is a mixture of over 670 different chemicals and is produced by reacting chlorine gas with camphene. It can be most commonly found as a yellow to amber waxy solid. Toxaphene was banned in the United States in 1990 and was banned globally by the 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. It is a very persistent chemical that can remain in the environment for 1–14 years without degrading, particularly in the soil. Testing performed on animals, mostly rats and mice, has demonstrated that toxaphene is harmful to animals. Exposure to toxaphene has proven to stimulate the central nervous system, as well as induce morphological changes in the thyroid, liver, and kidneys. Toxaphene has been shown to cause adverse health effects in humans. The main sources of exposure are through food, drinking water, breathing contaminated air, and direct contact with contaminated soil. Exposure to high levels of toxaphene can cause damage to the lungs, nervous system, liver, kidneys, and in extreme cases, may even cause death. It is thought to be a potential carcinogen in humans, though this has not yet been proven.

Monosodium methyl arsenate - മോണോസോഡിയം  മേതിൽ  ആർസെനറ്റ്

Monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) is an arsenic-based herbicide. It is an organo-arsenate; less toxic than the inorganic form of arsenates. It is one of the most common and cost effective herbicides used against weeds in agriculture. MSMA products are unique in that they combine selectivity, low weed-resistance, and cost-efficiency. MSMA is an herbicide used to control a wide spectrum of hard to control grass and broad-leaf weeds including some weeds that are resistant to the herbicide Glyphosate.

Thiamethoxam - തയോമെതോക്‌സാം  

The selective toxicity of neonicotinoids like thiamethoxam for insects versus mammals is due to the higher sensitivity of insects' acetylcholine receptors.The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the U.N. assessed thiamethoxam as "moderately hazardous to humans (WHO class III)", because it is harmful if swallowed. It found it to be no skin or eye irritant, and not mutagenic in any in vitro and in vivo toxicology tests.Thiamethoxam is a broad-spectrum, systemic insecticide, which means it is absorbed quickly by plants and transported to all of its parts, including pollen, where it acts to deter insect feeding. An insect can absorb it in its stomach after feeding, or through direct contact, including through its tracheal system. The compound gets in the way of information transfer between nerve cells by interfering with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, and eventually paralyzes the muscles of the insects.

Flubendiamide - ഫ്ലൂബൻഡൈഅമൈഡ്

Flubendiamide is a pesticide in of the ryanoid class which acts at receptors in insect muscles. It is registered for use on over 200 crops, with some crops having as many as six applications per year. The Environmental Protection Agency announced its intent to cancel its conditional approval of flubendiamide in March 2016. Crops that have been properly treated with flubendiamide or that may be treated with existing stocks can still be sold legally. Provisions on what to do with existing stocks of the pesticide will be issued after the product is cancelled

സ്പൈനോസാഡ്

Spinosad is an insecticide based on chemical compounds found in the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora spinosa. The genus Saccharopolyspora was discovered in 1985 in isolates from crushed sugarcane which produce yellowish-pink aerial hyphae, with bead-like chains of spores enclosed in a characteristic hairy sheath. This genus is defined as aerobic, Gram-positive, nonacid-fast actinomycetes with fragmenting substrate mycelium. S. spinosa was isolated from soil collected inside a nonoperational sugar mill rum still in the Virgin Islands. Spinosad is a mixture of chemical compounds in the spinosyn family that has a generalized structure consisting of a unique tetracyclic ring system attached to an amino sugar (D-forosamine) and a neutral sugar (tri-Ο-methyl-L-rhamnose). Spinosad is relatively nonpolar and not easily dissolved in water.

Chlorantraniliprole - ക്ലോറാൻട്രാനിലിപ്രോൾ

Chlorantraniliprole ( ISO name) is a selective insecticide developed by the US company DuPont . DuPont also refers to the substance of the trademark Rynaxypyr, and bring it to market two products with the brand names Coragen and Altacor. The substance belongs to a new class of pesticides, the anthranilamides, which has been developed by DuPont; it was introduced in 2007 on the market.Chlorantraniliprole is especially effective against Lepidopterasoorten . Also against species of the orders Coleoptera (including the Colorado beetle and weevils as Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (English name: "rice water weevil ') on rice occurs), Diptera and Homoptera (including whitefly ) is more or less effective.

Diafenthiuron - ഡയാഫെന്തൂറിയോൺ

Diafenthiuron is a chemical compound from the thiourea group. It was introduced in 1990 by Ciba-Geigy as an insecticide and acaricide.Diafenthiuron is used in cotton and vegetable growing against sucking insects. [3] The effect is based on the inhibition of ATP synthesis.Diafenthiuron is more highly toxic to Apis cerana indica F. than to C. punctiferalis by contact, using selectivity ratio and probit substitution methods of risk assessment, but the hazard ratio revealed diafenthiuron to be a slightly to moderately toxic chemical. Diafenthiuron was found to affect the foraging and homing behaviour of bees at sublethal concentrations. Thus, sublethal effects are more relevant in risk assessment than lethal and acute effects.

Quinalphos - ക്യൂനാൾഫോസ്

Quinalphos is an organothiophosphate chemical chiefly used as a pesticide. It is a reddish-brown liquid. The chemical formula is C12H15N2O3PS, and IUPAC name O,O-diethyl O-quinoxalin-2-yl phosphorothioate. Ranked 'moderately hazardous' in World Health Organization's (WHO) acute hazard ranking, use of quinalphos is either banned or restricted in most nations. Quinalphos, which is classified as a yellow label (highly toxic) pesticide in India, is widely used in the following crops: wheat, rice, coffee, sugarcane, and cotton.

Carbaryl - കാർബറിൽ

Carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) is a chemical in the carbamate family used chiefly as an insecticide. It is a white crystalline solid commonly sold under the brand name Sevin, a trademark of the Bayer Company. Union Carbide discovered carbaryl and introduced it commercially in 1958. Bayer purchased Aventis CropScience in 2002, a company that included Union Carbide pesticide operations. It remains the third-most-used insecticide in the United States for home gardens, commercial agriculture, and forestry and rangeland protection. About 11 million kilograms were applied to U.S. farm crops in 1976.[3] As a veterinary drug, it is known as carbaril (INN).

Carbosulfan - കാർബോസൾഫാൻ

Carbosulfan is an organic compound adherent to the carbamate class. At normal conditions, it is brown viscose liquid. It is not very stable; it decomposes slowly at room temperature. Its solubility in water is low but it is miscible with xylene, hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone. Carbosulfan is used as an insecticide.The European Union banned use of carbosulfan in 2007.

Fipronil - ഫിപ്രോനിൽ

Fipronil is a broad-use insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family. Fipronil is a broad-spectrum insecticide that disrupts the insect central nervous system by blocking GABA-gated chloride channels and glutamate-gated chloride (GluCl) channels, resulting in central nervous system toxicity. This causes hyperexcitation of contaminated insects' nerves and muscles. Specificity of fipronil on insects may come from a better efficacy on GABA receptor, but also because GluCl channels do not exist in mammals.Fipronil is a slow acting poison. When used on dogs and cats, it kills virtually all fleas in 24–48 hours. When used as bait, it allows the poisoned insect time to return to the colony or harborage. In cockroaches, the feces and carcass can contain sufficient residual pesticide to kill others in the same nesting site. In ants, the sharing of the bait among colony members assists in the spreading of the poison throughout the colony.With the cascading effect, the projected kill rate is about 95% in three days for ants and cockroaches.[citation needed] Fipronil serves as a good bait toxin not only because of its slow action, but also because most, if not all, of the target insects do not find it offensive or repulsive.

Dimethoate - ഡൈമീതോയേറ്റ്

Dimethoate is a widely used organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It was patented and introduced in the 1950s by American Cyanamid. Like other organophosphates, dimethoate is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which disables cholinesterase, an enzyme essential for central nervous system function. It acts both by contact and through ingestion. It is readily absorbed and distributed throughout plant tissues, but is degraded relatively rapidly.

Imidacloprid - ഐമിഡക്ലോപ്രിഡ്

Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects, with much lower toxicity to mammals. The chemical works by interfering with the transmission of stimuli in the insect nervous system. Specifically, it causes a blockage of the nicotinergic neuronal pathway. By blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, imidacloprid prevents acetylcholine from transmitting impulses between nerves, resulting in the insect's paralysis and eventual death. It is effective on contact and via stomach action.[1] Because imidacloprid binds much more strongly to insect neuron receptors than to mammal neuron receptors, this insecticide is more toxic to insects than to mammals.

Cartap hydrochloride - കാർടാപ്പ് ഹൈഡ്രോക്ലോറൈഡ്  

Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [3H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca2+ influx and induction of internal Ca2+ release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

Imidacloprid - ഇമിഡക്ലോപ്രിഡ്

Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects, with much lower toxicity to mammals. The chemical works by interfering with the transmission of stimuli in the insect nervous system. Specifically, it causes a blockage of the nicotinergic neuronal pathway. By blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, imidacloprid prevents acetylcholine from transmitting impulses between nerves, resulting in the insect's paralysis and eventual death. It is effective on contact and via stomach action. Because imidacloprid binds much more strongly to insect neuron receptors than to mammal neuron receptors, this insecticide is more toxic to insects than to mammals.Although imidacloprid breaks down rapidly in water in the presence of light, it remains persistent in water in the absence of light. It has a water solubility of .61 g/L, which is relatively high.[22] In the dark, at pH between 5 and 7, it breaks down very slowly, and at pH 9, the half-life is about 1 year. In soil under aerobic conditions, imidacloprid is persistent with a half-life of the order of 1–3 years.

Chlorpyrifos - ക്ലോർപൈറിഫോസ്

ഓര്‍ഗനോ ഫോസ്‌ഫേറ്റ് വിഭാഗത്തില്‍പ്പെടുന്ന കീടനാശിനിയായ ക്ലോര്‍പൈറിഫോസ് പ്രധാനമായും കേരളത്തില്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത് വാഴത്തോട്ടങ്ങളിലാണ്. ചിതിലും ഉറുമ്പും വരാതിരിക്കാൻ മണിലാണ് ഇത് തളിക്കുന്നത്. ഓറഞ്ച് ആപ്പിൾ തോട്ടങ്ങളിലും പുല്ത്തകിടികൾ വെച്ച് പിടിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിലും ഇത് ഉപയോഗിച്ചവരുന്നുണ്ട്.നാഡീവ്യൂഹത്തെയാണ് ക്ലോര്‍പൈറിഫോസ് പ്രധാനമായും ബാധിക്കുക. നാഡീകോശങ്ങള്‍ തമ്മിലുള്ള സന്ദേശങ്ങളെ നിയന്ത്രിക്കുന്ന എന്‍സൈമുകളെ തടയുകയാണ് ഈ രാസവസ്തു ചെയുന്നത്. അതോടെ നാടി വ്യൂഹത്തിന്റെ പ്രവർത്തനം തകരാറിലാകും അമിത വിയർപ്പ് ,തളർച്ച, തലവേദന, ഛർദി തുടങ്ങിയ ലക്ഷണങ്ങളാണുണ്ടാവുക.

Profenofos - പ്രോഫിനോഫോസ്

Profenofos is an organophosphate insecticide. It is a liquid with a pale yellow to amber color and a garlic-like odor. It was first registered in the United States in 1982.[3]:1 As of 2015, it was not approved in the European Union.Occupational exposure to profenofos may occur through dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where profenofos is produced or used. The general population may be exposed to profenofos near agricultural areas where it is used as a pesticide.Based on a study of patients poisoned with profenofos and its close chemical relative prothiofos, the compound has been described as "of moderately severe toxicity", causing respiratory failure. Differences in chemical structure that distinguish these two compounds from more common organophosphate pesticides -